Friday, May 22, 2020

Imperfetto Italian Imperfect Tense

â€Å"Every Sunday, when I was a kid, my nonna cooked us a big dinner.† How do you express that sentiment in Italian? It’s something that happened in the past, but since it was something that happened often, you wouldn’t use the present perfect, or il passato prossimo. In this and similar cases, which we’ll discuss throughout this article, you would use the imperfect tense. Lucky for you, this tense, l’imperfetto, is formed by adding the same endings to all three conjugations. The only difference is the typical vowel of the infinitive. What’s more, you should know that the imperfect tense is much more frequently used in Italian than in English. It expresses the English used to and is used to describe actions or conditions that lasted an indefinite time in the past. Its also used to express a habitual action in the past and to describe time, age, and weather in the past. So if you like telling stories, it’s a critical tense to learn. Adverbial Expressions That Are Commonly Used With the Imperfect Tense: a volte - at times, sometimescontinuamente - continuouslygiorno dopo giorno - day in and day outogni tanto - once in awhilesempre - alwaysspesso spesso - again and againtutti i giorni - every day How to Conjugate Regular Verbs in the Imperfect Tense Mangiare - To eat (regular verbs with -are endings) Mangiavo - I ate Mangiavamo - We ate Mangiavi - You ate Mangiavate - You (all) ate Mangiava - He/she/it ate Mangiavano - They ate Finire - To finish (regular verbs with -ire endings) Finivo - I finished Finivamo - We finished Finivi - You finished Finivate - You (all) finished Finiva - He/she/it finished Finivano - They finished Prendere - To take, to get (regular verbs with -ere endings) Prendevo - I took Prendevamo - We took Prendevi - You took Prendevate - You (all) took Prendeva - He/she/it took Prendevano - They took Using Common, Irregular Verbs Essere - To be Ero - I was Eravamo - We were Eri - You were Eravate - You (all) were Era - He/she/it was Erano - They were Fare - To do/to make Facevo - I did Facevamo - We did Facevi - You did Facevate - You (all) did Faceva - He/she/it did Facevano - They did Dire - To say, to tell Dicevo - I said Dicevamo - We said Dicevi - You said Dicevate - You (all) said Diceva - He/she/it said Dicevano - They said Examples Using L’imperfetto: Ogni domenica, quando ero un bambino/a, mia nonna ci preparava una splendida cena.  Every Sunday, when I was a kid, my nonna cooked us a big dinner.Giocavo a calcio ogni pomeriggio.  I played soccer every afternoon.Quando ero piccolo/a, mangiavo la pasta ogni giorno. When I was a kid, I ate pasta every day.La settimana scorsa, era (c’era) un tempo bellissimo!  Last week, it was really beautiful weather!Loro credevano sempre a tutto.  They always believed everything.Volevamo andare in Italia. We wanted to go to Italy.Il cielo era sempre blu.  The sky was always blue.Ogni mattina, prendevo un bel cappuccino e un cornetto vuoto. Every morning, I got a cappuccino and a plain croissant.Nel 2000, avevo quarant’anni.  In 2000, I was forty years old.Mi ricordo quello che diceva sempre mio padre: â€Å"Guarda il ceppo†!  I remember what my dad always used to say: â€Å"Take a look at the log†! (figurative the family)

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Reality of Human Nature Hidden Behind the Canterbury Tales...

Reality of Human Nature Hidden Behind the Canterbury Tales A common word on the street says that everyone is different, therefore behave differently. Everyone has their own lifestyles and have diverse habits or reactions among circumstances. It is true. People do have different appearances, styles, ethnicities, and interests because of how they were raised within a family or just the way they are born. However, physical appearances may have an effect on how people are unlike, but emotionally and mentally, people are much alike than they think. This links into Geoffery Chaucer’s work, â€Å"The Canterbury Tales†. Chaucer tells his readers that his main purpose of the book is to reveal his belief on what causes people to misbehave. The argument†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"And must dispose your daughter as is best† (199). This quote is said by Walter to Griselda letting her know that she has to give her daughter up by what the public suggests. This type of b ehavior is not necessary. It is an unpleasant way to test one’s love for the other. If it were not for Griselda’s kind heart, she could have opposed to his commands and left him alone or even worse, she could have killed herself thinking that her child has died, too. Walter’s behavior caused Griselda to suffer through pain for losing her children, â€Å"In my two children I have had no part but sickness first, then pain and grief of heart† (204). Walter’s lack of trust created a wound in his one and only wife if it was not for her candor and being demure. Not everyone will agree with the fact that people’s behaviors, like testing things, can be shown as corruption because not every test creates bad behavior. Again, this is true, but a lot of those behaviors need to be relaxed more, meaning behavior like Walter could lead to worse scenarios while fewer obstacles would make it much safer. Secondly, it is a natural habit for a person to be gree dy or have a great desire for what they want. The enmity created by the greed, though, can lead to serious issues. For example, â€Å"The Pardoner’s Tale† consists of three men who depart from their homes to find Death, a character who kills people, but with serendipity, they find loadsShow MoreRelatedDiscuss the Relationship Between Appearance and Reality and the Issues This Involves in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and ‘the Franklin’s Tale’.2721 Words   |  11 Pagesrelationship between appearance and reality and the issues this involves in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and ‘The Franklin’s Tale’. Judging a Book by its Cover The appearance of a situation, person or place may sometimes be at total odds with its actual reality, and thus change previous conceptions held of a thing or person. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Chaucer’s The Franklin’s Tale, not only are there illusions throughout the tale’s themselves, but the reality of the story and its messageRead MoreEssay Utopia4252 Words   |  18 PagesLatin text and English Translation : ‘Utopia treats fundamental issues of human nature and society, and brings to bear on them a seldom-matched combination of classical learning, practical experience and depth and complexity of the mind. Richly elusive and endlessly enigmatic, intriguing to scholars in several disciplines and inspiring to reformers and revolutionaries,’(Pg. xvii) The fundamental issues of human nature and morals continues to be examined and explored by scholars as many attempted

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Night Creature Crescent Moon Chapter 15 Free Essays

Adam’s place definitely looked better on the inside. Not much furniture, but tidy and dry – what more could anyone want? Hot water and a shot of whiskey – Irish, to be sure. I was suddenly so cold, my bones ached. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 15 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Which made no sense. The storm hadn’t done one thing to dissipate the heat. â€Å"I’ll put your clothes in the dryer.† Adam held out a hand. I stared at it, confused. â€Å"Your shirt, cher.† He wanted me to strip in the living room? His mouth quirked at my sudden shyness, but he didn’t point out that he’d already seen everything, touched and tasted it, too. Instead he nodded to the nearest door. â€Å"Bathroom’s right there. Take a shower, toss out your things.† â€Å"Hot water?† My voice quivered with hope. Adam nodded. â€Å"I live here year-round. Could do without electric, but why? Bought a generator first thing.† I practically ran into the bathroom, which was small but functional. I turned on the water, tossed my clothes through the door. As I waited for the steam to rise, my gaze flickered over the countertop. Shaving cream, razor, toothbrush, toothpaste, blow-dryer. I guess that solved the mystery of the un-wet hair, though why Adam had taken time to dry his locks while I wandered the swamp, I had no idea. Maybe he caught chills easily. He should try wearing a shirt and shoes. Climbing into the shower, I nearly moaned as the water hit my skin. Though I would have liked to stand under the stream for an hour, I made do with fifteen minutes. Then I dried off, wrapped my hair in one towel and my body in a second, and went searching for Adam. He stood at the front window. Night had descended completely. The thought of going out in that storm, walking alone through the dark, was too much. I would never be able to do it. My clothes were gone, presumably whirling around the dryer with his. The image of our things all tangled together and warm made me think of other warm things that should be tangled together. What was the matter with me? Was I suddenly obsessed with sex because it had been so long since I’d had any, or was I obsessed because I’d had it with him? â€Å"Hey,† I murmured. He turned, and our gazes met across the tiny room. He’d donned gray sweatpants and a bright yellow T-shirt, which made his skin appear more bronzed and his eyes more blue. I was so out of my league. â€Å"Hey,† he returned. â€Å"I’ll get you somethin’ to wear while de dryer does its thing.† I didn’t protest. There was no way I could be in the same room with Adam wearing only a towel and not be distracted by thoughts of him tearing it off of me. Then again, would that be so bad? What were we going to do all night? Play chess? I followed him down the hall, standing in the doorway as he rooted through a dresser. The bedroom was as sparse as the living room – nothing but a queen-size bed and a place to store clothes. I lost the towel. The swish of the terry cloth down my legs, the slight thunk as it hit the floor, were taint, yet his head went up like a deer sensing danger in the forest His eyes widened, and he dropped the T-shirt in his hand back into the drawer. â€Å"The bed looks comfortable,† I observed. He crossed the floor, stopping just in front of me. Reaching up, he tugged the towel turban from my head. My damp, wildly curling hair tumbled free. â€Å"Better than de ground,† he whispered. Lightning flashed so brightly, I still saw the flare after it faded. Thunder shook the earth; the windows rattled. â€Å"Gonna be a long night, cher.† â€Å"I hope so.† He led me to the bed, and we passed the long night together. I awoke in that hour when the moon dies and the sun is bom – the darkest time. The storm had raged outside, wild and primitive. Inside we’d done our best to imitate nature. I was both exhausted and exhilarated. Achy and alive. I turned my head. Adam’s face was so close, his breath caressed my cheek. I resisted the urge to brush back his hair and kiss his brow. Just sex, I reminded myself. I had a job to do, a vow to fulfill, a life to lead. One that did not include a reclusive former Special Forces officer with too many secrets. I didn’t believe he’d murdered a man with his bare hands. How could he, and then touch me so gently in the night? There was violence in him certainly, but not insanity. At least not yet. I frowned at the thought and shifted to glance out the window. My heart seemed to leap into my throat I wanted to call for Adam, but I couldn’t speak. A wolf stared through the glass. Huge, black, beautiful. A shaft of excitement, of joy almost, shot through me that I’d at last found something I was searching for. And then I saw the beast’s eyes. Wolves have brown eyes – dark, light, sometimes hazel. They do not possess orbs of blue. But what really freaked me out was the white surrounding the iris. I could swear those eyes were human – and familiar. They were Adam’s eyes. I sat up with a gasp, trying to catch my breath, finally succeeding. I looked to the right. The wolf was gone. Bracing myself, I looked to the left. Adam continued to sleep undisturbed. I put my palm to my chest; my heart threatened to burst through my skin. A dream, that was all. There hadn’t really been a wolf with human eyes staring at me with just a hint of desire – though I had to say his expression had been more famished than carnal. I lay down, spent a few moments breathing in and out, trying to make my heart return to a normal pace, hoping I didn’t wake Adam with my foolishness. After his performance, he had to be more tired than I was. The memory calmed me. I shifted closer, enjoying the warmth, the scent of his skin, the rhythm of his breathing. I hadn’t realized how much I hated sleeping alone. I drifted, perched on the precipice of sleep, when a tap at the window brought me wide awake again. My eyes snapped open. I expected the wolf; I did not expect Simon. A soft sob escaped my mouth. Just a dream again, had to be. Simon was dead. He could not be outside Adam’s window. I cringed at Simon seeing me in bed with another man, even if it was a dream Simon. He tapped on the glass, crooked his finger, so I slipped from beneath the covers and padded naked across the floor. Simon appeared exactly the same as he had the day he’d died. Tall and a bit gaunt – he’d always forgotten to eat unless I reminded him – his blond hair and blue eyes appeared almost Nordic. I hadn’t known he was British until he opened his mouth. That accent had been my undoing. When I’d met him he was well respected in his field. By the time he died he was a laughingstock, referred to as â€Å"The Wolfman† by people who’d once admired him. A few days before his death he finally told me why he was willing to risk everything to find something no one else believed in. He’d seen a werewolf as a child in England – out on the moors, in the fog – and ever since, he’d been unable to forget. I’d rationalized away the sighting as too much American Werewolf in London for a twelve-year-old mind He’d been understandably angry that the one person in the world who should believe him, didn’t, and when he’d received a call that a werewolf had been seen hi northern Wisconsin, he’d gone alone. I hadn’t believed him, and he’d died for it Simon laid his palm against the glass. Droplets of ram ran down, skirting his fingers. I lifted my hand and pressed it to the windowpane, too. God, I missed him. â€Å"D-baby,† he murmured. Only the two of us knew that nickname. â€Å"I’m here, Simon.† â€Å"I’m not† â€Å"I know.† He glanced over his shoulder as if someone had called him, then returned his gaze to mine. â€Å"I have to go.† â€Å"Not yet† He stepped back. Weird. He wasn’t wet, and the rain was still coming down. Or maybe not so weird after all. â€Å"You promised,† he said. I’d sworn till death do us part, but in my heart that meant forever. A love like ours just didn’t go away. I felt it now, swelling inside of me, making my eyes tear and my chest tighten. â€Å"Don’t leave me.† â€Å"I never have. I’ll be with you until the end of time. You took a vow, D-baby. Remember?† He’d come to remind me of the vow and not our love? Dream Simon or not, I wanted to slug him. â€Å"I haven’t forgotten,† I snapped. â€Å"Why do you think I’m here? I’ve been chasing legends every which way ever since you died. I haven’t found one damn thing.† â€Å"You have to believe in order to see, not the other way around.† He’d told me that countless times, but faith, for me, was tough. I was a scientist; I needed proof. â€Å"Be safe,† he whispered; then he was gone. I jolted as if I’d been startled awake. However, I wasn’t in bed; I was standing at the window. I couldn’t have been sleeping. Unless I’d been sleepwalking. As I leaned close, my nose brushed the glass. Nothing was out there but the night. I inched back, and my gaze caught on the imprint of a hand. My heart gave one hard thud before I came to my senses. I’d touched the window in my sleep, that was all. To prove it, I fit my palm to the outline. The fingertips on the glass extended half an inch past my own. How to cite Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 15, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Smoking Essay free essay sample

Cause and Effect Peer Revision Essay Smoking Smoking is one of a new disease that affects most of the society. These days smoking has spread by a large while everyone know that it doesn’t affect the smokers only, but the nonsmokers also which called passive smoking or secondhand smoking. Such as people who are sitting near the smokers who are breathing the smoke, the baby of the smoker pregnant woman and the pregnant woman who are not smoking. There are many researches which can help us to know what are the smoking effects on the smokers and nonsmokers and which of them are more dangerous. There are many different effects of smoking on the smoker’s people. And every year we hear that there are hundreds of people around the world die from diseases which caused by smoking, such as heart rate and blood pressure. First of all the smokers will feel that their hearts rate and blood pressure are coming faster which will cause heart attacks after years. We will write a custom essay sample on Smoking Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page That’s not all but there are some researchers found that the smokers are ten times more likely to dies from lung cancer than nonsmokers and emphysema, bronchitis and chronic airway obstruction are some of the smoking bad effect on the lung. Second hand smokes are the people who are not smoking but at the same time they are affected by smoke. There are some researches which find that 13% of cigarette smoke gets inhaled by the smokers and 85% lingers in the air every one breathe. Children are on of second hand smoke. They are breathing the smoke which leads them for colds, bronchitis, pneumonia and sometime it will lead them for middle ear infections. Pregnant woman are also one of the second hand smokes. The smoke will not affect her only, but her child also. She will have a high rate of miscarriages, still births; it will increase the risk of low birth weight infants and her baby will born with decreased lung function and with greater risk of sudden infect death syndrome. Smoking is what is called a slow death, as I think this word will summaries all the smoking effects. It’s unfair when the smokers and nonsmokers like children, pregnant women and all the people who are sitting near smokers people are affected by smoke because the smokers decided that they want to smoke without any feelings and they are ready to get all the effects such as increasing their heart rate, blood pressure, heart attacks and cancer while the nonsmokers are not. The government in USA decided that no one can smoke in closed places such as malls, university and restaurants trying to reduce the smoking effects. Last but not least, I would say that the smokers should not think about themselves but they should thing about the people around them.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Qué hace CBP, NVC en trámites migratorios

Quà © hace CBP, NVC en trmites migratorios Diferentes agencias e instituciones estadounidenses se ocupan de diversos aspectos inmigratorios. Conviene saber quà © hace el USCIS, ICE, CBP, NVC, las Cortes y las embajadas y consulados y, si se est tramitando un procedimiento migratorio, dirigirse siempre a la institucià ³n correcta. En este artà ­culo se explican quà © hacen la CBP, el NVC, las cortes y las embajadas en asuntos migratorios  y cà ³mo contactarlas. Quà © significa NVC El Centro Nacional de Visas, conocido como NVC por sus visas en inglà ©s, es una agencia que ocupa de los trmites intermedios en las peticiones de visa de inmigrante para la green card cuando el beneficiario tiene que ir a travà ©s de lo que se conoce como un procedimiento consular. Muchas de estas visas de inmigrante  estn sujetas a una cuota anual. Es decir, aunque est aprobada la solicitud debe esperarse meses o incluso aà ±os a que exista una visa disponible. Los casos que acumulan mayor retraso son las peticiones de ciudadano a hermano y a hijos casados. Destacar que en esas categorà ­as los retrasos son mayores en algunos paà ­ses como por ejemplo, Mà ©xico. Ello se debe a que son paà ­ses con un alto grado de inmigracià ³n a Estados Unidos y por ley, en un mismo aà ±o fiscal, se limita a un porcentaje el nà ºmero de personas que pueden emigrar en una misma categorà ­a de un mismo paà ­s. El NVC gestiona el paso intermedio despuà ©s de que el USCIS apruebe la peticià ³n de la green card y el consulado o la embajada cite para la entrevista. Esta es la forma de ponerse en contacto con dicha agencia. Es importante destacar que esta agencia, ubicada en Portsmouth, New Hampshire, jams recibe en persona a un migrante o a una persona interesada en obtener informacià ³n. Quà © significa CBP La agencia de Proteccià ³n de Aduanas y Fronteras (CBP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s) se dedica a hacer aplicar la ley en materia de inmigracià ³n, aduanas y comercio internacional. Se ocupa de temas tan diversos como detener a los indocumentados que tratan de entrar por a Estados Unidos sin inspeccià ³n. Pertenecen a este cuerpo, que cuenta con un presupuesto anual de casi 13 mil millones de dà ³lares, con 58,000 empleados destacando los ms de 21,000 dedicados a proteger los 11,100 km de fronteras con Canad y Mà ©xico. Estn tambià ©n en aeropuertos, puertos y puestos fronterizos terrestres. La CBP tiene acceso a un sistema de computacià ³n realmente impresionante. En base a sus conocimientos pueden decidir expulsar inmediatamente a un extranjero, incluso a los que tienen visa vigente. Las Cortes migratorias Dentro del sistema judicial federal estn las Cortes que sà ³lo se ocupan de asuntos migratorios como, por ejemplo, el asilo defensivo o procedimientos de deportacià ³n.   Si se tiene un caso migratorio ante una Corte es muy importante entender las demoras, quà © es el Master Calendar, las consecuencias muy graves que puede tener no presentarse a una cita en corte, cà ³mo cambiar de corte de un estado para otro, etc. Destacar que en corte migratoria el migrante contra el que se inicia el procedimiento puede representarse por sà ­ mismo o puede contratar a un abogado, pero que el gobierno nunca paga por un letrado en esta clase de casos. En la actualidad, hay 301 jueces migratorios en primera instancia y hay una corte de apelaciones, ante la cual nunca se presenta el migrante en persona. Es bien sabido que estas cortes estn colapsadas por trabajo, con ms de 540,000 casos pendientes de resolucià ³n. Finalmente, en este punto de las Cortes migratorias resaltar que en la actualidad se encuentran dentro de los casos prioritarios para deportar los de los migrantes que han sido condenados a deportacià ³n en ausencia, es decir, aquà ©llos que no se presentaron a su cita ni dieron una justificacià ³n razonable por su ausencia. Quà © hacen las embajadas y los consulados Las Embajadas y Consulados de Estados Unidos se ocupan de trmites tan diversos como, entre otros, proteger a los ciudadanos que se encuentran en el extranjero, gestionar visas de no inmigrante como las de turista y tambià ©n de inmigrante. Tambià ©n se dedican a resolver asuntos como pà ©rdida o expiracià ³n del pasaporte americano o emisià ³n de certificados para hijos de estadounidenses nacidos en el exterior. Incluso para el mismo trmite cada oficina consular puede tener diferentes requerimientos, por lo que es importante consular en la pgina web toda la informacià ³n pertinente antes de pedir que se gestione un trmite o de acudir a la propia embajada o consulado. Por lo general, para acudir a una cita se recomienda llegar un poco antes, no llevar cmaras ni objetos peligros y no ir acompaà ±ado por familiares. El uso de telà ©fonos celulares dentro de los recintos de las misiones diplomticas americanas est restringido. A tener en cuenta Al tratar asuntos migratorios se necesita muy frecuentemente la asesorà ­a de personas con conocimientos especializados. Es muy importante conocer las diferencias entre lo que puede hacer un abogado, un representante acreditado, un consultor y un notario. En todo caso es fundamental evitar ser una và ­ctima de fraude y, si desgraciadamente se ha caà ­do en la mano de personas inescrupulosas, hay que saber que existe la posibilidad de denunciar el fraude. Este artà ­culo es sà ³lo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal para ningà ºn caso particular.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How to Calculate Population Standard Deviation

How to Calculate Population Standard Deviation Standard deviation is a calculation of the dispersion or variation in a set of numbers. If the standard deviation is a small number, it means the data points are close to their average value. If the deviation is large, it means the numbers are spread out, further from the mean or average. There are two types of standard deviation calculations. Population standard deviation looks at the square root of the variance of the set of numbers. Its used to determine a confidence interval for drawing conclusions (such as accepting or rejecting a hypothesis). A slightly more complex calculation is called sample standard deviation. This is a simple example of how to calculate variance and population standard deviation. First, lets review how to calculate the population standard deviation: Calculate the mean (simple average of the numbers).For each number: Subtract the mean. Square the result.Calculate the mean of those squared differences. This is the variance.Take the square root of that to obtain the population standard deviation. Population Standard Deviation Equation There are different ways to write out the steps of the population standard deviation calculation into an equation. A common equation is: ÏÆ' ([ÃŽ £(x - u)2]/N)1/2 Where: ÏÆ' is the population standard deviationÃŽ £ represents the sum or total from 1 to Nx is an individual valueu is the average of the populationN is the total number of the population Example Problem You grow 20 crystals from a solution and measure the length of each crystal in millimeters. Here is your data: 9, 2, 5, 4, 12, 7, 8, 11, 9, 3, 7, 4, 12, 5, 4, 10, 9, 6, 9, 4 Calculate the population standard deviation of the length of the crystals. Calculate the mean of the data. Add up all the numbers and divide by the total number of data points.(925412781193741254109694) / 20 140/20 7Subtract the mean from each data point (or the other way around, if you prefer... you will be squaring this number, so it does not matter if it is positive or negative).(9 - 7)2 (2)2 4(2 - 7)2 (-5)2 25(5 - 7)2 (-2)2 4(4 - 7)2 (-3)2 9(12 - 7)2 (5)2 25(7 - 7)2 (0)2 0(8 - 7)2 (1)2 1(11 - 7)2 (4)22 16(9 - 7)2 (2)2 4(3 - 7)2 (-4)22 16(7 - 7)2 (0)2 0(4 - 7)2 (-3)2 9(12 - 7)2 (5)2 25(5 - 7)2 (-2)2 4(4 - 7)2 (-3)2 9(10 - 7)2 (3)2 9(9 - 7)2 (2)2 4(6 - 7)2 (-1)2 1(9 - 7)2 (2)2 4(4 - 7)2 (-3)22 9Calculate the mean of the squared differences.(4254925011641609254994149) / 20 178/20 8.9This value is the variance. The variance is 8.9The population standard deviation is the square root of the variance. Use a calculator to obtain this number.(8.9)1/2 2.983The population standard deviation is 2.983 Learn More From here, you might wish to review the  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹different standard deviation equations and learn more about how to calculate it by hand.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

EU Enlargement to Eastern Europe Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

EU Enlargement to Eastern Europe - Essay Example Following the launch of the euro as EU's common currency, the EU found it necessary to shift its attention to the East. The decision to enlarge EU membership to Eastern European countries was finalized in 2002 and its first phase would have been carried out between 2004 and 2006. Here, EU negotiates what analysts perceive as a bumpy road. belonged to the former communist bloc which just emerged from half a century of Soviet domination. Throughout this long period, they operated on a planned economy and it is only now that they are moving in unison towards a market economy. As a lingering effect of a less efficient economic system, their incomes are much lower than those of existing EU members. This poses a problem to the process of harmonizing the entry of these countries into EU. EU enlargement to Eastern Europe will boost the European common market from 320 million people to about 470 million. Unlike Switzerland, Norway and Iceland which joined only EU's free trade area, the Eastern European countries need to be full EU members or they will not enjoy the promised benefits. This entails huge costs on the part of the new members. Eastern Europe is a low-income region of about 100 million people whose combined income will raise the GDP of EU by a mere 5 per cent. This is very much less than the result of previous EU expansions to the North and South. It is not only their low income levels that may bring deleterious effects to EU but also the fact that these countries are in the middle of a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy. In addition, the new members will have to cope with more EU regulations than before because of the recent creation of the Single European Market concept. Although many of the former communist bloc countries are convinced of the superiority of the free market, some have retained their faith in the socialist system and in the role of government in steering economic growth. Thus, many of them continue to bring up the rear on the list of world's freest economies. In the 2003 Economic Freedom of the World Report, only Estonia made it to the16th rung. Hungary was 35th, Czech 39th and Latvia 51st. At the bottom of the list were Bulgaria at 103rd place, Russia 112th, Romania 116th and Ukraine 117th. (Tupy, L., 2003) Initially, liberalization of these economies pushed output down, but they gradually recovered. By 2002, their separate GDPs grew as foreign investment started to come in. During that year, the World Bank reported that Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Sloavakia led the pack with an average 2.3 per cent growth. Poland is the largest of these former communist bloc countries and may prove to be of strategic importance to EU since it is the gateway of Western Europe into the large Eastern European countries of Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine. (Mind Your Business, 2004) The other big countries in the East that are slated to join EU are Russia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Slovenia and Slovakia. Poland's Problems Signs that Poland is a possible problem child for EU became evident as soon as the homeland of the beloved Pope John Paul II took the first step of joining the union in May 2004. Polish